What are the different types of diabetes?
Although some people refer to it as “diabetes” or “diabetes mellitus,” the precise word for a set of metabolic illnesses that cause high blood glucose (sugar) levels in diabetes mellitus, or diabetes for short. ?
It’s not about the sugar; it’s about how your body processes it and what you do to keep your blood sugar levels in check.
In 2015, moreover 30 million adults in the United States, or 9.4 percent of the population, had diabetes.
This year, it became the 7th most common cause of death.
Diabetes affected approximately 84.1 million persons. In 2014, more than 422 million people worldwide were diagnosed with diabetes.
Diabetes encompasses a wide range of conditions that are often diagnosed based on their kind.
Each type differs in terms of what causes it, how it’s treated, and the headaches it might cause.
Here’s a fast rundown of each type of diabetes: definitions, a few basic statistics, and how common each type is in the United States and around the world.
Pre-diabetes and insulin resistance
Prediabetes is a pre-diabetic condition that can lead to type 2 diabetes. To comprehend why you must first comprehend how the body turns sugar (or glucose) into energy.
Food and beverages are the main sources of glucose in the body. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that helps blood glucose reach your muscles, fat, and liver as energy.
When your body cannot efficiently utilize insulin, your pancreas generates extra insulin to overcome this resistance.
However, if your pancreas is unable to match the demand, hyperglycemia, or high blood glucose, occurs.
insulin resistance is the most common cause of pre-diabetes, however, the origins of insulin resistance are unknown.
Some of the established risk factors include family history, advancing age, being overweight, and leading a sedentary lifestyle.
There are various tests that can be used to determine whether or not you have diabetes.
The hemoglobin A1C test, which indicates how much glucose binds to hemoglobin in your red blood cells on average during the previous three months, is one approach to monitor blood glucose levels.
A1C levels should be less than 5.7 percent in order to be considered normal.
You have prediabetes if your A1C is between 5.7 and 6.4 percent. You have diabetes if your blood sugar level is 6.5 percent or higher.
However, lifestyle adjustments such as eating a nutritious diet can help you get your blood glucose levels back to normal.
To keep your blood sugar in check, eat smaller, more frequent meals. In fact, decreasing just 7% of your body weight (or more than 200 pounds if you’re over 200 pounds) will help you cut your risk of type 2 diabetes by 58 percent.
Diabetes Types 2
Insulin resistance causes type 2 diabetes, as previously stated. Type 2 diabetes accounts for 90 to 95 percent of all diabetes cases, and one out of every four people has no idea they have it.
The illness is more common in adults over 45, and Asians, blacks, and Hispanics are more likely to have it in the United States.
It also has a strong link to being overweight. In the world, nine out of ten people with type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese.
Obese persons, on the other hand, do not develop type 2 diabetes. Diabetes has been diagnosed in 2 out of 10 overweight and 4 out of 10 obese persons in the United States since the mid-70s.
Type 2 diabetes can be managed by altering your food and lifestyle to lower blood glucose levels and weight.
Furthermore, many persons with this illness keep track of their blood glucose levels on a regular basis.
Take your medication orally, and inject yourself with insulin using a pen, pump, or needle on occasion.
Type 2 diabetes, if left undiagnosed or poorly managed, can lead to a variety of health issues, some of which can be fatal.
Periods of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) are among them. Diabetic neuropathy is a type of nerve injury that causes pain and numbness.
Injuries to the feet and limbs, diabetic ulcers, malfunction, or even amputation are all possibilities.
Failure of the kidneys Blindness; heart disease; Skin issues; gastrointestinal problems;
STIs (sexually transmitted infections) Teeth and gum problems, as well as difficulty controlling blood pressure.
Diabetes Type 1
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune illness in which the body’s own immune system targets and destroys the pancreas’ insulin-producing beta cells. Hyperglycemia arises when this hormone is absent.
People with type 1 diabetes must use insulin injections to keep track of their blood glucose levels and the quantity of insulin they don’t produce on a daily basis.
In the United States, type 1 diabetes affects roughly 5% of the total number of diabetics, with a higher prevalence among non-Hispanic whites than among non-racial or ethnic groups.
This type of diabetes can strike at any age, but it is most common in childhood or adolescents, which is why it was previously referred to as diabetes.
A person can live a normal life with careful management.
However, the average age of a person with type 1 diabetes is 12 years younger than the general population, emphasizing the importance of staying on top of your diabetes medication if you have it.
Type 1 management can also keep track of technological advancements, which can help enhance longevity rates.
Type 1 diabetes complications are similar to type 2 diabetes complications in that both cause long-term harm due to chronic high blood sugar levels.
However, those with type 1 diabetes are at an increased risk of developing diabetes ketoacidosis, which can be fatal (DKA). When the body is unable to turn glucose into energy due to a lack of insulin, it begins to break down fat for energy. Ketones, an acidic substance in the bloodstream, accumulate as a result of this.
“We usually advise patients that if their blood sugar level is higher than 250 [milligrams per deciliter mg/dl], they should check their urine for ketones – especially if they plan to exercise.”And if your blood sugar level is higher than 300 mg/dL, it could be fatal since an excess of ketones in your blood causes your blood to become very acidic.
Fruit juice is a by-product of DKA. Nausea, trouble breathing, and loss of consciousness are some of the other symptoms. DKA can cause kidney failure, cerebral fluid buildup, heart attack, and even death if left untreated. Treatment of the illness with insulin, fluids, and other treatments often necessitate hospitalization. However, DKA can be avoided with careful insulin administration and urine ketones monitoring, both of which can be done at home.
Pregnant women normally develop some insulin resistance to help ensure that adequate glucose is available to supply energy to the growing fetus. The majority of them are free of gestational diabetes. However, it is responsible for up to 14% of all attacks in the United States.
Treatment for gestational diabetes usually entails dietary and lifestyle adjustments, but doctors may also prescribe oral diabetic medicines or insulin to alleviate the symptoms.
`Pre-eclampsia, or high blood pressure during pregnancy, is a consequence of gestational diabetes that can have a negative impact on the mother’s health. Furthermore, this disease can result in premature births. Or being obese at birth, which can lead to problems during delivery. Blood sugar levels in newborns can quickly rise to hazardous levels. Obesity, heart disease, and type 2 diabetes are all risks they face later in life.
Despite the fact that half of all women get gestational diabetes, it normally goes away after childbirth.
Diabetes Type 1.5
Adults with chronic autoimmune diabetes (LADA) are sometimes given this moniker. LADA is a kind of diabetes that causes gradual pancreatic beta-cell loss, however, it is usually moderate and develops later in life.
“If you have any patient over 30 years of age who are affected with traditional symptoms – blood sugar is high – if you give them metformin, they may be able to manage some of their symptoms.” However, the beta cells that produce insulin will stop operating in the next five years, and they will become true type 1 diabetics who require insulin.
It’s critical to have a correct diagnosis of LADA so that beneficial therapies, such as insulin therapy, don’t put off the use of type 2 diabetes-friendly oral drugs.
The presence of antibodies in pancreatic cells is usually used to diagnose LADA. A peptide test, which measures insulin synthesis, can also aid in the diagnosis.
Type 1.5 diabetes causes
Damage to your pancreas caused by antibodies against insulin-producing cells can cause type 1.5 diabetes. A family history of autoimmune diseases, for example, may play a role in the development of the disease. In type 1.5 diabetes, when the pancreas is injured, the body destroys pancreatic beta cells, just as it does in type 1. Insulin resistance may be present in a person with type 1.5 diabetes who is also overweight or obese.